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Stone Veneer

Posted by squadron on Monday, 10 October, 2011

Stone veneer is a modern way to decorate the walls of a making. The stone veneer cladding gives a stylish method adopted by architects to impart a dynamic look to a lifeless construction. This is mostly used for visual purposes and has a long life. The elegance and simplicity of stone veneer provides homeowners, architects, building contractors and developers with a versatility and versatility to be more to resourceful. Stone veneer is also properly used in yards and complementing the natural beauty of the open spaces as well.

Stone Veneer acts as a decorative and protective protecting on exterior as well interior walls and surfaces. The veneer is normally one inch thick; it is lighter in weight and weighs about 15 lbs. / sq. ft. It does not need any extra structural support for its installation.

Stone Veneer is mostly made from natural stones. It can also be produced from manufactured stones. The natural stone veneer is manufactured from stone, which is collected from quarries or as subject stone. The stone is then sawn working with huge diamond impregnated cutters equally spaced to get the slices of the stone in a consistent heavyness and weight. This stone is also known as “thin stone veneer”.

Besides the natural stone veneer, manufacture stone veneer is also a decorative constructing material. It is produced to imitate the appearance of natural stone. There are numerous names used for this type of veneer. The stacked stone veneer, artificial stone veneer, manufactured stone veneer and versatile stone veneer are various titles used for stone veneer.

Stone veneer is produced by mixing a lightweight concrete mix to rubber molds of different type. These are painted with a coloring process to make them resemble the real stone. an additional method to make stone veneer is by casting and molding it from chemically modified lightweight concrete. Stone veneer is actually a replica of natural stone. It takes the finest details of the original stone. At a near look, the artificial stone veneers appear just like original stones.

The stone veneer is mostly used as a siding on the walls. It can be fixed on the walls using special high quality mortars for highest adhesion and strength. versatile stone veneer is manufactured by slicing a thin level of a stone. It is then backed by some composite material. It can be produced in a variety of designs and colors utilizing different stones. The manufactured stone veneer is more affordable than natural stone veneer and there is the least amount of wastage in its use.

Manufactured stone veneer costs almost 1/3 to 1/2 the cost of using natural stone. simply because of the lightweight of the manufactured stone veneer, there is no need for wall ties or any footings. It makes the construction easier and thereby lessens the cost. There is a vast variety of designs, patterns and colors available on manufactured options as compared to the natural stone simply because the natural stone is generally used in the area close to where it is extracted due to the huge transportation costs.

Manufactured stone veneer is relatively less strong as compared to natural stone rock walls, but many applications do not call for higher strength as aesthetics is a more important component in many cases. Stone veneer is also not reusable like natural stones.

Stone veneer provides the natural look of the stones at inexpensive price ranges. Stone veneers are preferred these days for most of decorative facing in constructings and open spaces.


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    The Importance of Corporate Identity and Branding

    Posted by squadron on Monday, 10 October, 2011

    The success of any business is built around its identity. Both, corporate identity and branding, are crucial as they exemplify the perception of the business and the way the products and services are perceived by the consumer.

    Corporate Identity is what assigns you as a company and it is the first point of differentiation that separates your business entity from the competition.

    Corporate branding plays a major role in advertising as well, as it includes the logo that is associated with the company. While some people give little weight to the importance of constructing an organizational identity, it is a major component of any business as anything your company does in the future, irrespective of good or bad, will be associated with that logo. Whenever people see that logo, they will immediately think of your products and services.

    Branding on the other hand refers to the name, sign or symbol (or a combination of all) that is used to recognize products and services and attribute them to your company. It also includes the functional aspects, the tasks and values and what the business has to offer to the public. Corporate identity and branding both construct the business image, when seen from an outsider’s point of view.

    Clients usually acknowledge these two aspects of the company before they decide to do business with you. The brand and corporate identity you choose should not just advertise high quality products and services to your clients, it should also be complimented with a considered set of visuals that would help people distinguish your products and services from those offered by your competitors.

    For any business to prosper in the industry, these two key aspects should be taken into careful consideration. This is maybe why it takes more than one person to decide on an aspect that is seemingly irrelevant but in actuality is what defines the company as a whole.

    Looking for a web design course? Brisbane offers many options for SEO training and seo packages. Call Search Tempo today for options and packages.


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    Things To Consider When Hiring A Spit Roast

    Posted by squadron on Sunday, 9 October, 2011

    If you are an avid party thrower and you want that extra special something to add that element of glam to your party, spit roast hire is a great idea. Spits come in different sizes and relying on the number of people today at your party and the amount of space you have at your disposal, you can roast a couple of chickens or even a whole pig or goat. When thinking of spit roast hire there are several easy ways to procure what you need through the yellow webpages and the internet. however, before you go in for spit roast hire, there are some important things you must take into consideration.

    Do It yourself v/s catering.
    For a lot of individuals, do it yourself options are much better because they can save on lots of money. Setting up a spit and actually cooking on it can be a time consuming and cumbersome task. When it happens to spit roast hire, there are firms which will let you simply hire the spit roast and do everyfactor by yourself, or give you a fully loaded package deal in which everymatter from setting up, cleaning up and serving is done by a team of professional caterers. So relying on whether you have enough time or not you can decide if you want to do it all your self or pay someone else to do it for you.

    Gas Spit v/s Charcoal Spit
    When thinking of spit roast hire, you must first decide what kind of a spit you will need. There are spits that work on charcoal and those that work on gas. Weigh the pros and cons of each type and decide which one you want. The good matter about charcoal spits is the fact that the meat you cook on it will keep the delightful smoke a cigarettey flavor of the charcoal. Gas spits will not let for that. Even so, charcoal spits are untidy, they create a lot of smoke a cigarette and can be dangerous if not attended to. Gas spits are scanner, make less of a mess and don’t create as much smoke a cigarette. Another disadvantage of charcoal spits is that you can’t use them in closed spaces because they create a lot of heat and smoke cigarettes. If you plan to cook interiors, a gas spit makes much more sense. Even so, with gas spits you have to make sure the enclosed area is well ventilated.

    Size Does Matter
    Another important aspect of spit roast hire you must consider is the size of spit you need. What kind of meat are you planning to cook? A spit roast is a very versatile technique of cooking and everypoint from cow, venison, bull, goat and pig can be cooked on it. relying on the type of and amount of meat you want to cook, you have to choose an appropriately sized spit . For instance if you wish to cook a full developed goat, you will need a spit that allows for 25kgs. Of course, the bigger the spit size you choose, the more expensive the affair will be. speaking about spit roast hire, gas spits come in a constrained number of sizes while charcoal spits are readily available in a larger wide variety of sizes.

    Cost Of Charcoal v/s Gas Spit
    One of the most important matters that you must keep in mind when heading in for spit roast hire, is the cost. You have to first figure out how much you can afford and how much you are willing to spend to hire a spit roast. A lot of people today feel that charcoal spits are cheaper which in fact is not the case. Technically if you go to see, charcoal and gas spits cost virtually the same if you take the total cost of cooking into consideration. The fee to hire a charcoal spit is much less than that of a gas spit but what you must take into consideration is the fact that charcoal spits require additional fuel whereas gas spits don’t.

    So relying on whether you are having an inside or outdoor party or if you want to be extravagant or minimalistic, put some time into research, figure out what you need and then go in for the right spit roast hire. For more information about spit roast hire Brisbane, visit http://spitroasthire.brisbaneoz.com/


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      The Importance of Proofing Designs

      Posted by squadron on Friday, 7 October, 2011

      You’ve decided it’s time for a new site or image. For most, the first step is to choose the right organization. However, the first thing you need to do is develop at least a vague concept of what you expect from a finished product. Not only is this step commonly ignored in the initial phase of project development, but also during the creative briefing stage after recruiting a design company.

      Everyone wants to send off a concept to the professionals and let them take care of everything. If you’re having your car washed, then nothing is really needed from you. For design briefs, you need to be more directly involved. Website design and graphic design are two fields where getting involved yourself is necessary to the perfect design for you and your organization.

      During your first meeting with a website and graphic design firm, you should supply them with your estimations and goals. This provides the company with a starting point. This doesn’t mean that you are finished. No one is a mind reader. In order to make absolutely certain you get the best design possible, you must take the creative briefing stage seriously.

      This is the part of the project where you work one on one with the designers to ensure they completely understand what you desire. The more they understand, the quicker that can deliver the finished project. It also reduces the number of initial design changes.

      The next step before the designer can work on your project is proofing your design. You should never just quickly glimpse the design and give your approval. Look over the design plans as thoroughly as you would any important document. If the design isn’t exactly as you envisioned it and doesn’t provide the features you discussed, now is the time to make changes.

      Waiting until the final project is delivered means time consuming revisions for both you and the designer. By involving yourself in both the creative briefing and design proofing stages, you save both time and money. You also get the perfect website or graphic design the first time around. The sooner your project is in place, the sooner your customers and visitors will see it.

      You should never take this responsibility lightly. It’s your design, your website. Take the time to ensure the design company you choose fully understands your vision. By communicating your needs, the company is able to provide suggestions. With thorough communication between both parties, the best designs and sites are created.

      For graphic design Brisbane or logo design Brisbane visit The Creative Noise. The Creative Noise is also a website designer. Brisbane is where their head office is located.


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        Cheap SEO packages- what to look for in these services

        Posted by squadron on Thursday, 6 October, 2011

        The term SEO as we all know is an acronym of search engine optimisation which is the process of improving a websites awareness on search engines. Websites that are highly ranked in search results have more visitors. SEO targets many alternatives which include image search, local search, video search and academic search. Today, there are many companies offering affordable SEO packages~deals} for consumers~shoppers~buyers} who want their sites’ rankings to rise. SEO’s (acronym referring to search engine optimizers) use different methods to obtain good search engine optimization on the buyer’s website.

        Any company offering cheap SEO package deals~deals} should be able to enable the purchasers site rise in the search engines fast. When many internet users search for a particular term(also referred to as ‘keyword’), they perceive the ones at the top as having more relevance to the key phrase. while there are many components that lead to a website getting to the top spot (or at least among the top ten), SEO comes in handy to make sure that this is accomplishd in a short period of time. becoming professional, SEO’s know what is best for a site and how to go about producing sure that it rises to the top. They use a variety of tactics that are all geared towards achieving the same.

        A few of the methods they use include:

        -Back links building and,
        - LSI (Latent Semantic Index) content writing.

        In back link building, inbound links are used to improve a site’s visibility. Inbound hyperlinks are from other sites and they are important because of their significance to search engine marketing. A site with a big number of back hyperlinks is one indication that it is preferred and of significance to others too. Google and other web search engines determine the Page Rank of a website or webpage due to the number of back links it has. It is Therefore worth noting that this SEO selection is of great importance to any website owner who wants his site to get ranked fast.

        LSI content writing is among the most common SEO choices. simply because search engines rely on the content on the website or webpage so that it gets ranked, having a website that is well taken care of in this area is very important to the owner. For illustration, Google is very rigorous when it comes to content. They require a webpage to have key phrase rich content so that it can get good rankings. In many cases, search engine optimizers be able to write content for purchaser}s observing key phrase density and also length. posts of considerable good length are better positioned to get ranked much simpler than short ones with crappy content. All articles have to be free from plagiarism. This means that they are authentic and written by the site owner and are not copied from other sources.

        In most cases, consumer}s who consult these low cost SEO packages~deals} providers want services so as to improve rankings to their money generating websites. They either have affiliate hyperlinks on their sites, promote CPA, run Ad-sense or offer solutions that people pay for. To them, it is an investment and As a result it makes perfect reason for getting good site rankings.

        To get the best affordable SEO package, a consumer} wants to look for the following qualities:

        - whether the company has been offering the services for a considerable time period of time,

        -regardless of whether the company charges reasonably,

        -regardless of whether the company offers all the solutions that he/she desires and also,

        -whether the company has reviews from previous successful projects.

        Having located that all the above levels~factors} are well taken care of, he/she can from that point order their providers. The client} should ensure that all instructions and particulars are meticulously tended to before giving them out to the SEO guys. using inexpensive SEO package deals~deals} has proven to be the most efficient way that website owners use to make to the top of the web search engine results. mainly because of the ever growing internet working with inhabitants globally, these solutions will continue to provide their companies to the ever hungry website owners who also want to get a piece of the large chunk of money made from the internet. To sum up, we can say that this is two way traffic as both the customer and the service provider need one other.

        Looking for a cheap SEO packages? Try this new service from Search Tempo. These cheap SEO packages are just about the best value on the internet.


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          Choosing a Mackay Lawyer, Solicitor or Law Firm

          Posted by squadron on Thursday, 6 October, 2011

          Because it is a growing region, there are many new families and people in the Mackay region that require the services of a Mackay lawyer*, solicitor or law firm for the first time. Finding a solicitor to do the conveyancing required to help you buy a house or building, to give advice about starting a business or to prepare important documents such as wills or enduring powers-of-attorney, can be a baffling and stressful time.

          When you are needing a Mackay solicitor, lawyer or law firm you ought to consider looking for the following characteristics:

          Happy customers
          For most individuals it is almost impossible to compare the quality of legal services that is provided by one Mackay solicitor/lawyer or another. Unless you regularly use the same sort of legal service you can’t really compare various law firms. But you can look for a Mackay solicitor that is proud of their past performance with generous use of testimonials from previous clients. If they have numerous testimonials it tells you two things. Firstly, that they have numerous happy clients and secondly, that they are willing to take time and go to the trouble to discover what clients think of their service. They are aware that they are a service-oriented business.

          Local knowledge
          A Mackay solicitor or lawyer should have good local knowledge and experience in assisting other people in the city. Find out if the firm has worked on local developments or firms with established conveyancing specialists who have garnered a valuable amount of “inside knowledge” about the property market, local agents and banks which will make a huge difference to the way your transaction will be dealt with.

          Breadth of services
          Because most people only need a lawyer occasionally, there is value in choosing a Mackay solicitor, lawyer or law firm that can provide the full range of services without having to move around to alternate providers. Finding a firm that can assist with your conveyancing, estate planning, disputes, business services and even workplace or employment issues, means you can stick with the one firm which will meet all your legal requirements. Law firms value clients who use several services, and are often able to provide services more cheaply when they have provided other work for you in the past.

          *In Queensland a person with legal qualifications was traditionally referred to as a solicitor while a person who “had standing” to represent you in court was called a barrister. More recently the general term lawyer has become more widespread and can be used to describe either of these types of legal practitioner. In some other states of Australia the conveyancing process (the legal process required to transfer ownership of house) can be undertaken by licenced conveyancers. This is not the case in Queensland where conveyancing must be undertaken by a solicitor/lawyer.

          John Gray is a practising solicitor and marketing consultant who has worked with leading Mackay law firms. If you need a Mackay solicitor or Mackay lawyer contact John Gray for a recommendation.


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            Relationship Counselling can help you discover more about yourself.

            Posted by squadron on Sunday, 2 October, 2011

            If you really want to look in depth at why the two of you have the unique relationship and issues that you have, look no further than the Enneagram.

            One of the most helpful ways to discover yourself and just as importantly, how you contribute to your relationship problems, is to look at your Enneagram profile.

            The modern Enneagram is based on ancient Eastern wisdom combined with modern Psychological thought. There are 9 personality types each with different modes of thinking, feeling and acting. Each style has its own natural gifts, faults, and blind spots.

            When you know your Enneagram number, you can then be aware of the unconscious assumptions that drive the way you see yourself, do your work, and relate in your relationships.

            And you can also understand why your partner seems to act in the strange, inconsiderate, intrusive, self-interested, seductive or charming ways that he or she does.

            Once you know how he or she see things from the inside out, you can see why they do the things they do which makes perfect sense to them.

            There are no types that are better than any other. Each is effective in their own way, but from a very different point of view.

            • Ones want to make things right.
            • Twos need to be of help.
            • Threes are driven to succeed.
            • Fours yearn to be special.
            • Fives want to be left alone to think.
            • Sixes seek safety and support.
            • Sevens are connoisseurs of life’s pleasures.
            • Eights are driven to dominate others.
            • Nines don’t want to make waves.

            For more information on how your and your partner’s Enneagram types interact, call us at the Hart Centre. We are a group of Psychologists around Australia who are passionate about relationships and specialise in relationship counselling.

            With 15 relationship counselling centres in Sydney, and 12 relationship counselling centres in Melbourne, you will more than likely find one near you. Phone 1300830552 for more details.

            Remember, for relationship counselling Sydney or relationship counselling Melbourne contact the Hart Centre.


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              Stradbroke Island Queensland – Travel Guide

              Posted by squadron on Wednesday, 28 September, 2011

              Right on Brisbane’s eastern doorstep, North Stradbroke Island (“Straddie” to the familiar) is one of Australia’s east coast natural treasures and a perfect escape destination. Somehow, the secret has been well kept and it is only recently that Stradbroke Island has begun to sparkle on the tourist and property radar.

              Travel to Straddie via the township of Cleveland will take approx. fifty minutes using the vehicle ferry. Cleveland is only a half-hour drive from Brisbane International Airport or the centre of Brisbane, and one hour’s drive from the Gold Coast. The ferry ride across Moreton Bay is the first of a series of experiences that make visiting Stradbroke Island such a fabulous trip.

              Stradbroke Island is 27,530 hectares, and therefore is the world’s second largest sand island. The elongated sand island shields much of the southern part of Moreton Bay and the smaller islands from the ocean swells. The beaches are accessible by four-wheel drive, bicycle or on foot, with many great camp sites situated all the way down Main Beach, and beautiful views appear visible from almost everywhere on the island.

              The 35 kilometres of white sandy beaches fringing the island’s eastern side runs from Point Lookout at the north to Jumpin Pin in the south. From the Point lookout headland, the buildings of the Gold Coast can be clearly visible, being a constant reminder of the contrast to the more relaxed lifestyle of Straddie.

              North Stradbroke (or Minjerriba to the indigenous Noonuccal tribe) was the home of celebrated Aboriginal poet Kath Walker, or Oodgeroo Noonuccal. There is much Aboriginal and European history in Dunwich where the water taxis and barges moor.

              The calm waters of Moreton Bay ripple against the shores of the island’s western fishing towns. With a lack of agriculture and the filtering effects of the sand results in unpolluted water that sea creatures, and particularly Stradbroke Rock Oysters thrive upon.

              North Stradbroke attracts four-wheel drivers, anglers, surfers and beach-lovers to its wide stretches of sandy coast and rugged granite headlands, and the Island offers a good range of accommodation, restaurants, cafes and holiday attractions. With an incredible diversity of experiences to offer and stunningly beautiful spots to discover, North Stradbroke is a great holiday location for families, couples and adventure-seekers alike. The ideal way to see the Island is by Four Wheel Drive, but there are many stunning coastal walks and a mountain bike and whale watching map are an easier and more environmentally sound alternative.

              Point Lookout is the main destination, only a thirty kilometre drive on a sealed road from Dunwich. The North Gorge Headland is forty metres above sea level and known as a leading land-based whale watching area throughout the colder months, and world-class surfing and fishing throughout the year.

              Point Lookout’s beautiful beaches and headlands are safe for swimming, surfing and fishing all year round. Whales, dolphins, turtles and manta rays can often be spotted from the spectacular North Gorge at the northern tip of the island. The island has been listed as one of the world’s most ecologically important wetlands with several freshwater lakes, waterways and lagoons that are accessible by 4WD or on a tour with one of Straddie’s tour operators.

              One of the greatest experiences on the island is the fresh seafood directly from local fishermen. Just look for signs at Amity Point and Point Lookout which will direct you to their homes and the freshest catch-of-the-day around. For those that prefer the work be done for them, Straddie’s restaurants and cafes all make use of this fabulous resource on the menu.

              “The Point” offers several alfresco style cafes, a bakery, chemist, post office, newsagent, corner store and supermarket. The island also has a bus service which links all 3 towns to ferries and water taxis.

              North Stradbroke Island is the ultimate paradise for the many enthusiasts who visit each year. On a good day it’s possible to surf right past the pub, along the evocatively named Cylinders Beach, on waves that peel dreamily for hundreds of metres. Stick ten bucks in the back pocket of your boardies and you can drop in for a quick beer on your way back around -you may even bump into world ranked surfer and local Bede Durbidge! Stradbroke also boasts what is perhaps the last truly old-school surf shop in the country, that focusses on selling surfing gear rather than fashion.

              The jewels in the Straddie’s crown is Point Lookout and the natural wonder of the North Gorge Walk, along with the surf, the choice of beaches, all sheltered in differing winds, the whale watching, and the spectacular coastal walk around the gorges. If you are looking for Stradbroke Island Accommodation, make sure you visit: http://www.discoverstradbroke.com.au/


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                Marketing of Law Firms

                Posted by squadron on Wednesday, 28 September, 2011

                Law firm marketing is essentially based on selling the lawyer as the product, so your biography is an essential element of marketing your services. This article provides 5 tips to ensure you get your biography absolutely right.

                Writing a biography, which markets lawyers on web-sites or in printed material is often given very little consideration and invariably done in a hurry. Worse still are those that the lawyer hasn’t been involved in writing and which an admin worker has scraped together from a CV.

                If this is true of your firm or your bio then you have a very real flaw in your marketing strategy. You must be aware that marketing of lawyers, especially those in repeat business areas of law, is based on the principle that the lawyer is the product. That is why the team page of a law firm website is generally the page most visited after the home or landing page. If you charge an hourly rate for your time, you are the ‘product’, and your prospective clients will wish to know what they are buying!

                It’s true that some companies base their marketing on a general sales pitch, or branding in a specific area of law, but generally, the success of your marketing strategy will be due to the client believing they will receive good value when they buy the time of the solicitor doing their work. So, hopefully having convinced you of the importance of a well-crafted bio, here are 5 tips for putting one together:

                Essential Ideas for designing a compelling Lawyer Bio

                Provide all the relevant information
                It’s surprising how many law firm web-sites have bios of their staff that neglect to include relevant information. And this doesn’t mean what law school they went to. Make sure to start the bio with a full name, your position within the firm, the type of work you provide, and any other firm responsibilities. And remember, you’re not writing this for other lawyers to read.

                As a lawyer I was pretty pleased the day I was admitted to the Supreme Court in my state. But honestly, many clients don’t have any idea what this means. So remember to include info that may be relevant to your client, not just facts that will impress other lawyers. Certainly mention qualifications, positions on legal committees and the like, but unless it’s something your clients will understand and consider important, then leave it to the end of the bio. It may be of some help to involve a third party. Have someone outside the legal industry read your biography and give you some feedback.

                Your client is looking for a solution
                Difficult as it may be for your ego to accept, the client is not engrossed in you as individual. They are looking for a lawyer they believe can best solve their problem or most successfully undertake their project. So you need to provide information that will convince them you’re the right professional for the job. In printed documents you should aim to include examples of how you’ve helped people, but online bios often need to be concise. So try to cover this one with phrases like, “More than 10 years experience in”, “Recognised within the X business community for assisting with”, “A certified specialist in the area of”, or “Successfully negotiated more than 200 rural property contracts”.

                Connect with the real world, not just the legal world
                If your company or practice provides services that are based in a particular city or region you can help your marketing efforts by demonstrating a connection to that community. Being considered a “local” by prospective clients by demonstrating a connection with the region’s major industry eg. ” from a family with a long involvement in the coal mining industry”, encourages a connection with the reader.

                Add a little personality
                Don’t hesitate to inject some personality to your bio. And this doesn’t have to be the standard “Married with 2.5 children”. Include personal information if it helps with point number 4 above, but more importantly, you ought to consider how you practice and the type of “client experience” you provide. Are you a ” fiercely determined approach”, a “collaborative practitioner focussed on keeping costs down” or a “down to earth, with a knack for easing clients concerns”. Finding a genuine point of difference in how you practice communicates that you are a real person with a real personality” and not the same as the numerous other lawyers who are busily marketing themselves.

                John Gray is a practising lawyer and the Senior Marketer at John Gray Marketing, an Australian specialist law firm and legal marketing consultancy. If you are interested in law firm marketing, legal marketing and marketing for lawyers, contact John Gray today.


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                  Principles of Criminal Law

                  Posted by squadron on Monday, 26 September, 2011

                  The common idea regarding criminal law is that crime is an act that is honourably wrong. The intent of criminal ratification was to make the offender give retribution for harm done and compensate for their guilt; discipline was to be meted out in proportion to the magnitude of the crime. More recently rationalistic and practical views have prevailed. Writers of the Enlightenment such as Cesare Beccaria in Italy, Montesquieu and Voltaire in France, Jeremy Bentham in Britain, and P.J.A. von Feuerbach in Germany thought the main reasoning of criminal law to be the prevention of crime. With development of the social sciences, there came new ideas, such as those of the protection of the public and reform of the offender. Such a purpose can be seen in the West German criminal code of 1975, which states that the court “has to consider the effect of the sentence upon the future life of the offender in society”. In the United States, a Model Penal Code proposed by the American Law Institute in 1962 states that an objective of criminal law should be “to give fair warning of the nature of the conduct declared to constitute an offense” and “to promote the correction and rehabilitation of offenders.” Since that time there has been renewed interest in the concept of general prevention, including both the deterrence of possible offenders and the stabilisation and strengthening of social norms.

                  Common Law and Code Law

                  Important differences exist between the criminal law of most English-speaking countries and that of other countries. The criminal law of the U.K. and the United States is derived from traditional English common law of crime and has its origins in former judicial decisions embodied in reports of past cases. England has continuously regarding comprehensive legislative codification of its criminal law; even now there is no statutory definition of murder in English law. Some Commonwealth countries, however, notably India, have enacted criminal codes that are based on the English common law of crimes.

                  The criminal law of the U.S., derived from the British common law, has been adapted in some respects to American conditions. In the majority of the U.S. states the common law of crimes has been rescinded by legislation. The consequences of such edicts is that no person can be tried for any offense that is not specified in the statutory law of the state. But even in these states the common-law principles do continue to exert influence, as the criminal statutes are most often simply codifications of the common law, and their provisions are interpreted in reference to the common law. In the remaining states, prosecutions for common-law offenses not specified in statutes will sometimes happen. In a few states the so-called penal, or criminal, codes are simply collections of individual provisions with little effort made to connect the parts to the whole or to define or implement any theory of control by penal measures.

                  In western Europe criminal law of modern times has emerged from a number of codifications. Particularly the two Napoleonic codes, the Code d’Instruction Criminelle of 1808 and the Code Pénal of 1810. The latter constituted the leading model for European criminal legislation during the first half of the 19th century, after which, although its influence in Europe dwindled, it continued to play an important part in the legislation of certain Latin-American and Middle Eastern countries. The German codes of 1871 (penal code) and 1877 (procedure) provided the models for other European countries and have had important influence in Japan and South Korea, although after World War II the U.S. laws of criminal procedure were the main influence in the latter countries. The Italian codes of 1930 denote one of the technically most developed legislative efforts in the modern period. English criminal law has particularly influenced the law of Israel and also that of the English-speaking African states. French criminal law has predominated in the French-speaking African states. Italian criminal law and theory have been influential in Latin America.

                  In recent times the call for codification and law reform has made considerable progress everywhere. The American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code encouraged a intensive reexamination of both federal and state criminal law, and new codes were put in place in many states. Britain has enacted several important reform laws (including those on burglary, sex crimes, and murder), as well as modern legislation on imprisonment, probation, suspended sentences, and community service. Sweden enacted a new strongly progressive penal code in 1962. In West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) a revised version of the criminal code was published in 1975 and subsequently often amended. In the same year a new criminal code came into force in Austria. New criminal codes have also been published in Portugal (1982) and Brazil (1984). France enacted important reform laws in 1958, 1970, 1975, and 1982, as did Italy in 1981 and Spain in 1983. Other reforms have been constituted in Finland, The Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Japan. The Soviet Union’s constituent republics began enacting revised criminal codes in 1960, as did Czechoslovakia and Hungary (1961), East Germany (German Democratic Republic), Bulgaria, and Romania (1968), and Poland (1969). After Yugoslavia became a federal state in 1974, a number of local penal codes came into being in addition to the federal code of 1977.

                  If you have get in trouble with the law, even if you believe you are totally innocent, you may wish to contact a criminal lawyer. Brisbane boasts a number of talented criminal lawyers who can help you. For criminal lawyers in Brisbane, contact go to court.


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